This detailed study examines Communist policies toward peas¬ants and indigenous tribal societies in a cross-section of developing states. Identifying the universal ingredients of Marxist-Leninist theory and praxis, Janusz Bugajski explores the national adaptations of Marxism-Leninism by insurgent groups and ruling vanguard parties.
Placing Communist programs in a theoretical framework and historical perspective, the author first scrutinizes the key features of Marxism-Leninism and its application in the Soviet Union and the Third World. Case studies ofguerrilla movements i,n El Salvador, Guatemala, and the Philippines trace Communist agrarian strat¬egies for conducting revolutions and laying the groundwork for a socialist transformation-The author also uses ‘case studies of Vietnam, Kampuchea, Afghanistan, and Ethiopia to assess Com-munist government policies toward peasant majorities and tribal minorities, paying special attention to the motives, goals, methods, and results of socialist construction. In his overview of the present state of Communism in the developing world, Bugajski weighs the impact of reformist currents on the agrarian polices of Leninist movements together with the long-term implications of structural reform for Communist theory and practice.